Lab Q

Pure water – A key reagent for experimental success

Water is an indispensable reagent in scientific experiments yet tap water falls short in meeting the stringent purity requirements of laboratory settings. Even trace amounts of impurities can significantly impact research outcomes. This blog explores the critical role of pure water in experimental success, the detrimental effects of contaminants found in tap water and the importance of using the appropriate water purification systems for various laboratory applications.

Impurities in Tap Water: A Hindrance to Scientific Research 

Tap water contains numerous contaminants that render it unsuitable for scientific purposes. Impurities, elements and compounds, even at concentrations as low as one part per trillion, can introduce unintended variables into research experiments. Heavy metals and dissolved organics, which are commonly present in tap water, pose a serious threat to life science research. To ensure accurate and reproducible results,specialized water purification systems such as pure water filters and lab water purification systems are essential to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Ultra Pure Water for Analytical Techniques 

Certain analytical techniques like High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) require ultra pure water for calibration purposes. The detector baselines in HPLC require absolute consistency, which can only be achieved with water that is entirely free from any impurities. Even the presence of trace elements can disrupt the reliability of results. Hence, water used for these techniques must meet stringent purity standards, as determined by ASTM standards and other equivalent standards.

Ensuring Reliable Results in Chemical and Biochemical Laboratories

Purified water finds extensive applications in chemical and biochemical laboratories, ranging from washing glassware to filling autoclaves. The quality of the water used directly affects the expected results. Inadequate water quality can compromise experimental and well, this may potentially jeopardize research integrity. Therefore, it is crucial to employ suitable water purification systems specifically designed for laboratory settings. These systems ensure the purity of water required for accurate and reproducible scientific investigations.

Water Quality Standards: Guiding Laboratories to the Right Choice

Recognizing the significance of water purity, esteemed organizations, including the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), US Pharmacopeia (USP), and the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) have established water quality standards. These influential organizations have defined different types of water quality, ranging from Type I to Type IV, along with water intended for Special Purpose use. Lab water testing and adherence to these internationally recognized standards help laboratories identify the appropriate water purification systems for their specific needs.


Water purity is paramount in laboratory research, impacting the reliability and validity of scientific findings. Utilizing the right lab water purification systems ensures the elimination of contaminants that can compromise experimental outcomes. By adhering to water quality standards and conducting thorough lab water testing, laboratories can confidently choose the appropriate water purification system for their applications, guaranteeing accurate and reproducible results.

Are You Using the Right Quality of Water ?

Different levels of quality are required for a vast range of applications, therefore different grades of water must be purified and utilized to match the required procedures or appliances.   


Grade of Water Resisitivity (M-cm) TOC (ppb) Bacteria (CFU/ml) *Endotoxin (EU/ml) Typical Applications 
Type 1+ 18.2 <5 <1 <0.03 GF-AAS, ICP-MS, trace metal detection
Type 1 >18 <10 <10 <0.03 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), GC, AAS, immuno cytochemistry, mammalian cell culture, plant tissue culture
Type 2+ >10 <50 <10 NA General laboratory applications requiring higher inorganic purity
Type 2 >1 <50 <100 NA Feed to ultra pure type 1 systems, feed to clinical analyzers, electro chemistry, sample dilution, media preparation, radio immunoassay
Type 3 >0.05 <200 <1000 NA Feed to ultra pure water type 1 systems, feed to washing machines, dishwashers, autoclaves


 *only applicable to critical life science based applications

There are  number of different ways to  purify water.  Water purification involves coarse filtration  activated carbon filtration , reverse osmosis, deionization,  organic adsorption, microporous filtration, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation and distillation. Technologies used in combination for  production of laboratory, pharmaceutical or ultra pure water.